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Hello to everyone who cares, I'm pleased to keep on loading the new articles for you. It's our encyclopedia of reproductive technologies, and I'm glad to present today's topic! All the comments are strongly appreciated, so do not hesitate to share your views, I'll be happy to reply to each of them. Our theme is PGD or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, what is that, its advantages and disadvantages, pros and cons, let's start it!
What the hell is that?
"P-G-D" You surely heard this abbreviation If you somehow linked to reproductology or treated fertility.

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a reproductive technics or procedure used prior to implantation (Embryo transfer) to help in detection of genetic defects within embryos. Such a procedure aims to prevent certain genetic diseases or disorders from being developed in body of a child. Negligence in using PGD may lead to rather unpleasant consequences.
How it's performed?
After the eggs were retrieved and fertilized with father's sperm in the lab, the embryos are grown up to day 5. On the fifth day, the biopsy for PGD is done on all appropriately developing embryos.

Biopsy involves removing a few cells from the trophectoderm, or the layer of cells that is 'hatching out' of the embryo at this stage of development. I'll come back to "hatching" soon to share some professional opinion. The embryos are stored while genetic material inside the removed cells is tested for abnormalities. Decisions regarding selection of embryos to transfer into the uterus are made with the advice of both the medical and genetics team.
There are two types of PGD: the one which aimed at selecting embryos that are free of a genetic disorder affecting a single gene - we know it as PGD and another that analyses genetic diseases affecting one or more chromosomes, called PGS. Their names are sometimes a cause for confusion.
Let's briefly go through the advantages and drawbacks of PGD
1) Ample opportunity of detection
PGD can detect risk factors for many genetic issues, including hemophilia, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia and chromosomal abnormalities. PGD can test for more than 100 different genetic conditions.

2) Earlier detection
The doctors are able pinpoint genetic problems before the embryo is transferred back in to the uterus that means the physician can choose embryos that will increase your chance of conceiving a healthy child. The remaining embryos that are determined to be chromosomally abnormal can stay frozen

3) Reduced medical/financial issues
If PGD reveals high levels of affected embryos, couples may opt for alternative options in subsequent IVF cycles, like donor eggs and sperm. Healthy unaffected donor eggs and sperm can be substituted in cases of extensive genetic illness.

4) Positive impact on psychological wellbeing
Using PGS means that the uncertainty that patients go through is reduced. On the one hand, they have the guarantee of the health of their embryo and that the very latest technology has been used in order to ensure this. On the other, the risk of pregnancy loss is reduced and this reduces emotional stress, particularly in the case of patients who have already gone through this.
1) Chance of embryo destruction
About 20 percent of the time, an embryo can be damaged as a result of the biopsy process required for PGD. An embryo damaged by PGD biopsy will usually stop growing, not proceed to the next growth phase. Damaged embryos will not result in a viable pregnancy.

2) Possibility of undetected disease
No form of testing can guarantee 100 percent accuracy, and PGD is not the exception. While today's' newer genetic testing technology is very accurate, the medical practice does witness instances of the missed genetic traits.
Keep in mind that preimplantation genetic diagnosis does not replace the recommendation for prenatal testing.

You should understand it's up to you my friends, PGD is something that's available within the modern medicine. Knowing that, we can take a decision whether we need to use PGD.

That's all I have prepared for today guys! I really hope it was interesting and helpful. We'll meet soon again! It was our encyclopedia of reproductive technologies! Ciao!

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