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What is surrogacy?

Regardless of whether, you are already parents of many sweet children, or you are a couple that is trying to get pregnant so far, or you are happy clients of some extremely awesome clinic and you are in the middle of the journey, or for example you are a teenager and have only a little idea how children are born at all, or possibly you are an open-minded person and now it is 3 A.M. and you're traveling thoughtlessly on Internet in search of a sensation, no matter, in any case I invite you to dive into the digital encyclopedia of surrogacy, to learn from another angle how the world has changed during these 20 years.
Let me start blogging from the ground up, if you don't mind. What is Surrogacy? What do we mean saying this word? I'm going to explain the essence of the phenomenon, its history, whose kung Fu is better at the moment and how many among us were "born by surrogate mothers"! In which conditions the surrogates live, how many people are involved in the process, what the risks are, and much more.
As described in the book - Surrogacy is an arrangement, often supported by a legal agreement, whereby a woman (the surrogate mother) agrees to become pregnant and give birth to a child for another person who is or will become the parent of the child.
Surrogacy is an assisted reproductive technology that involves at least three participants in its process
Genetic father
a person who has provided his sperm for fertilization
Genetic mother
donates her egg cell, or ovum, which also participates directly in fertilization. Both genetic parents pledge to take care of their future baby
Surrogate mother
a woman of childbearing age, giving her consent to bear and give birth to a child from genetic parents for free or for a fee
Algorithms and standards of surrogate motherhood were formed through trials and errors, but now there are specific laws in some countries that regulate the process completely and prevent various undesirable legal situations.
Officially, there are two types of surrogacy
Altruistic
the surrogate mother is both a donor and a carrier
Gestational
Mother is only the carrier of the child without any genetic connection
Why does this technology exist at all and what is the use?
Generally, surrogacy is used to solve problems of infertility when a woman is not able to give birth to a child for medical reasons.
Sometimes it is the only adequate response to infertility, disease and circumstances that prevent the family from knowing the joy of parenthood.
History and first experiments
Surrogacy has pretty a long history, the first mention of it appeared about 4,000 years ago.
4,000-Year-Old Assyrian Tablet Makes First Known Infertility Diagnosis and Recommends Slave Surrogate
Of course, we cannot carry out a direct correspondence between "prehistoric surrogate motherhood" and today's technologies, but in any case these are parts of one whole concept.
Another mention of surrogacy is dated in Sumerian Mesopotamia in 1750 BC. Even then, surrogacy as a procedure was legalized in the code of laws of King Hammurabi.
The first mention of surrogate motherhood, when an embryo from one woman was carried out by another, found in Indian legend in 599 BC
In ancient Rome, men literally rented their wives to married couples, if the wife was infertile, and a child born with the help of a "rented" mother was later a legitimate child of an infertile married couple.

Surrogacy as a fact was in Egypt. In order not to mix their blood with the blood of the poor folks, the Egyptian pharaohs took their own sisters as wives (it is clear that, due to incest, children couldn't be born with sound health) and the local nobility used the services of concubines for the continuation of the clan of Egyptian pharaohs.
Traditional surrogacy is also mentioned in Holy Scriptures.
For example, you can find the story of the birth of Ishmael in the Book of Genesis. Christians in every way "defend" such interpretations, as in most cases the Christian community speak out against this technology.


The modern history of research originates in 1677, and is associated with the name of the inventor of the microscope Leeuwenhoek, who examined sperm and became the first to see a sperm cell. He suggested that the sperm is a seed, while the uterus creates a favorable environment for its "germination".

And in 1790, in order to overcome infertility, the famous Scottish surgeon and venereologist John Hunter injected the husband's sperm into his wife's vagina and thus carried out the first artificial insemination in the history, which successfully ended with the birth of a healthy baby. And already in the 20s of the 20th century, artificial insemination with the sperm of a husband or a specially selected donor became widely used.

Scientific and technical progress and the women's emancipation contributed to the search for new ways to solve the problem of infertility. Modern surrogacy has become possible by the advent of artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization. This also made it possible to obtain genetic material from genetic parents and then "implant" it for bearing and giving birth to a child in a natural biological incubator - the surrogate mother's body. According to relatively accurate estimates, there are 7 million people born on Earth via IVF procedures on Earth. And this is more than the population of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Uruguay. As well as joint population of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. It's unbelievable, isn't it?

The first successful surrogacy program in the USA — and in the world — was held in 1980 with support from Surrogate Parenting Associates, Inc., established by Dr. Richard M. Levin. in Louisville. The first surrogate mother was a 37-year-old Elizabeth Kane from Illinois. the intended parents were a woman who could not have children, because her fallopian tubes were blocked, and her husband. They entered into an agreement with Elizabeth Kane, and then she was fertilized with the sperm of an intended father, and after giving birth, Kane was paid a cash reward. Also, Kane had three own children.

Pregnancy came at the first attempt, ended with the birth of a healthy boy. Five days later, the surrogate mother refused from the child in the local court. Since then, with the help of Surrogate Parenting Associates, Inc. more than 500 babies were born, and Dr. Levin himself became a widely known public figure.
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